Indian History

Sangam Age

The land between the river Tungabhadra and Kanyakumari is called Tamiladesa or Dravidadesa or Dakshinadesa.
The ancient Tamil Kingdoms of Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras were referred in Ashokan inscriptions and Hathigumpha inscription of Kalinga king Kharavela.
The writings of Megastanese also referred these kingdoms.
The first, second and the third centuries A.D were referred as Sangam Age in the Tamil History.
Sangam(Kudal) means assembly of scholars and poets at Madurai.
The literature produced by the members of the assembly is called Sangam Literature.
The history of ancient Tamil kingdoms i.e. Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas came to know from Sangam Literature.
The land of three kingdoms (Chola, Chera and Pandya) is called as Tamilakkam in Tamil Literature.
Tamil Literature was patronized by all the kings of Sangam Age.
Silappadikaram and Manimekalai are the two great works of Sangam Literature.
Silappadikaram was written by Ilango Adigal.
The life of Kannagi(a great woman known for her chastity) is known from Silappadikaram.
Sattanar, a buddhist, was the author of Manimekalai.
As per traditional accounts three Sangams were held.
The first Sangam was held to the south of Madurai under the patronage of Makeerthy, the Pandyan king. Agastya was the president of first sangam.
The second Sangam was held in Kapadapuram, second capital of the Pandyas.
The third Sangam was held in Madurai. Nakkirar was the president of third Sangam.
For supremacy over Tamilakkam frequent wars took place between the three(chola, chera and pandya) kingdoms.
Talkoppiam, a work on grammar, was composed by Tolkappiar in the second sangam.
Tiruttakkadevara, a Jain, was the author of Sivaka Chintamani.
Nakkirar was the author of Tirumurukatuppadai.
Aryan religious customs, caste system and Sanskrit words entered into Tamil as a result of contacts with them.
Trade relations exists between Tamilakkam and Roman empire during the Sangam Age.
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