Indian History
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Indian History-Chronology

2500-1500 BC: Indus Valley Civilisation.
2000-1500: Aryans arrive from central Asia.
1500-1000: The Early Vedic Age – Rigveda.
1000-500: Later Vedic Period - Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Samhitas, early Upanishads and Sutras.
563-483 : Gautama Buddha – born at Lumbini (Nepal); attainment of knowledge – Bodh Gaya (Bihar); first sermon – Sarnath, near Varanasi (UP); Nirvana – Kusinagar (Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh).
540-468 : Mahavira – born at Kundagrama near Vaishali (Bihar) and nirvana at Pavapuri (Patna, Bihar). 492-460 : Rule of Ajatasatru, son of Bimbisara, king of Magadha.
364-321 : Rule of Nandas of Magadha 326 : Invasion of India by Alexander Battle of Hydaspes. 322-298 : Reign of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Mauryan dynasty.
273-232 : Reign of Ashoka , son of Bindusara
261 : Kalinga war.
257 : Asoka's conversion to Budhism by Upagupta.
250 : Third Buddhist council at Pataliputra 90 : Sakas invade India.
58 : The Vikrama Samvat (vikram era) introduced by King Vikramaditya of Ujjain. 20-46 AD : Gondophernes, the king of IndoParthians.
78 : Accession of Kanishka, The Saka era begins.
100-300 : The Sangam Age in south India.
50 BC-250 AD : Satavahana dynasty in the Deccan.
320-335 : Reign of Chandragupta-I.
335-380 : Reign of Samudragupta known as Indian Napoleon.
380-414 : Reign of Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya).
405-411 : The visit of the Chinese pilgrim Fa-hien to India.
500-527 : Rule of Huns over North India. 606-647 : Harsha Vardhana of Kanauj. Hiuen-Tsang visited India (AD 630-644).
500-757 : First Chalukya dynasty of Vatapi
630 : Harsha's clash with PulakesinII
973-1190 : Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani
760-1142 : Palas of Eastern India.
985-1014 : Reign of Rajaraja, the Great. Starts a great land survey (AD 1000).
1014-1044 : Reign of Rajendra Chola. Naval campaign against Sri Vijaya kingdom.
788-820 : Sankaracharya and his philosophy of Advaita. 712 : Arabs occupy Sindh.
871-1173 : Imperial cholas of Tanjore.
916-1203 : Construction of Khajuraho Temples.
1000-1027: Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni.
1191 : Prithviraj III, defeated Muhammad Ghori in the first battle of Tarain .
1192 : Mohammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj in theSecond Battle of Tarain in 1192.
1206 : Foundation of the Sultanate of Delhi by Qutub-ud-din Aibak.
1210 : Death of Qutub-ud-din Aibak.
1210-1236: Reign of Iltutmish.
1221 : Mongol invasion under Chenghis Khan.
1231 : Iltumish completed the construction of Qutub Minar at Delhi.
1236-1240: Reign of Empress Raziya, daughter of Iltutmish, the first and last woman ruler of Medieval India. 1266-1287: Reign of Sultan Balban.
1288-1293: Visit of Marco Polo in India.
1290-1296 : Sultan Jalal-ud-din Firuz Khalji, founder of the Khalji dynasty.
1296 : Alauddin Khalji invades Devagiri.
1296-1316: Reign of Sultan Alauddin Khalji.
1309-1311: Malik Kafur's expedition into South India.
1320-1325: Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (Ghazi Malik), founder of the Tughlaq dynasty.
1325-1351: Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. Transferred the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad-1327. Issue of token currency – 1329.
1333 : Ibn Batuta arrives in India.
1351-1388: Sultan Firuz Tughlaq.
1398 : Invasion of Timur during the reign of Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud
1414-1451: Reign of Sayyid dynasty.
1420 : Visit of Nicolo Conti.
1451-1526: Bahlul Lodhi (1451-89), Sikandar Lodhi (1489-1517), and Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-26)
1526 : The first Battle of Panipat (1526) Babur defeats Ibrahim Lodhi.
1336 : Foundation of the empire of Vijayanagar by Harihara and Bukka
1438-1468: Reign of Rana kumbha in Mewar.
1509-1530: Reign of Krishnadeva Raya, the greatest king of Vijayanagar.
1565 : Battle of Talikota, decline of the empire of Vijayanagar.
1346 : Foundation of the Bahmani kingdom by Ala-ud-din Hasan Bahman Shah (1347- 1358).
1498 : Vasco da Gama arrives at Calicut
1505 : De Almeida, the first Viceroy of Portuguese in India
1510 : Conquest of Goa from the Adilshahi Sultan of Bijapur – 1510.
1526 : Babur defeats Ibrahim Lodhi at the first battle of Panipat. Formation of Mughal empire.
1527 : Battle of Khanwa. Babur defeats Rana Sanga of Mewar.
1530 : Accession of Humayun.
1538 : Death of Guru Nanak.
1539 : Sher Shah defeats Humayun at Chausa and assumes sovereignty
1540 : Humayun’s defeat near Kanauj.
1542 : Birth of Akbar.
1545 : Battle of Kalinjar.
1545 : Death of Sher Shah.
1555 : Battle of Sirhind. Sikandur Suri was defeated by Humayun, Humayun recovers the throne of Delhi.
1556 : Death of Humayun and accession of Akbar. Second Battle of Panipat.
1556-1605: Akbar's reign. 1564 : Abolition of Jezyah.
1565 : Battle of Talikota Vijayanagar destroyed.
1571 : Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri.
1576 : Battle of Haldighati and defeat of Maharana Pratap.
1579 : Infalliability decree issued by Akbar.
1581 : Din-i-Ilahi promulgated by Akbar.
1600 : Deccan expedition and siege of Ahmadnagar : Charter to British East India company.
1605 : Death of Akbar and accession of Jahangir.
1605-1627: Reign of Jahangir.
1609 : William Hawking visited Jahangir.
1615 : Sir Thomas Roe in the court of Jahangir.
1627 : Death of Jahangir. 1628 : Shah Jahan proclaimed Emperor.
1631 : Death of Mumtaz Mahal.
1636 : Treaties with Bijapur and Golcunda.
1658 : Coronation of Aurangzeb.
1659 : Murder of Afzal Khan by Shivaji.
1663 : Death of Mir Jumla. : Attack on Poona by Shivaji. : Shaista Khan appointed Governor of Bengal.
1665 : Conclusion of the treaty of Purandhar - signed between Sivaji and Jai Singh.
1666 : Death of Shah Jahan.
1674 : Sivaji's Coronation and assumption of the title of Chatrapati.
1675 : Execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur.
1679 : Jeziah imposed on the Hindus by Aurangzeb.
1680 : Death of Sivaji.
1686 : Conquest of Bijapur by Aurangzeb.
1687 : Golconda annexed to the Mughal empire.
1707 : Death of Aurangzeb at Ahmadnagar.
1739 : Invasion of Nadirshah.
1740-1761: Peshwaship of Balaji Baji Rao (Nana Saheb).
1746-48 : First Carnatic war.
1748-54 : Second Carnatic war.
1756-63 : Third Carnatic war.
1757 : Battle of Plassey.
1760 : Battle of Wandiwash.
1761 : Third Battle of Panipat: The Marathas defeated by the combined troops of Ahmad Shah Abdali; the Mughals, and other Muslim chiefs of India.
1764 : Battle of Buxar. The English defeat Shah Alam, Shuja-ud-daulah and Mir Qasim.
1765 : Grant of the ‘Diwani’ of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa to the East India Company by Shah Alam II under Treaty of Allahabad. : Clive, Company’s Governor in Bengal.
1765-72 : Dual Government of Bengal.
1767-69 : The First Anglo Mysore War.
1770 : The Great Bengal Famine.
1771 : Marathas occupy Delhi and restore Shah Alam who was till then under English protection at Allahabad.
1772-73 : Warren Hastings as Governor of Bengal. : Abolition of Dual Government of Bengal (1772).
1773 : The Regulating Act was passed, bringing the company partially under Parliament’s control and the Presidencies under Calcutta’s control.
1773-85 : Warren Hastings Governor-General. : Establishment of Supreme Court, Calcutta.
1775-82 : The First Anglo-Maratha War.
1776 : Treaty of Purandar
1780-84 : Second Mysore War.
1783 : Fox’s India Bills give more powers to Parliament and to the Governor-General.
1784 : Treaty of Mangalore between Tipu and the English : Pitt’s Act passed, Setting up Board of Control for East India Company. : Asiatic Society of Bengal founded by Sir William Jones.
1786-93 : Lord Cornwalis, Governor-General. 1790-92 : Third Mysore War.
1792 : Treaty of Srirangapatnam signed between Tipu and English.
1793-98 : Sir John Shore, Governor-General.
1793 : The Permanent Zamindari Settlement of Bengal.
1798 : Lord Wellesley as Governor-General and brought subsidiary alliance.
1799 : Fourth Mysore War. Fall of Srirangapatnam. Death of Tipu.
1800 : Establishment of the College of Fort William.
1802 : The Treaty of Bassein between Peshwa and English.
1803 : Occupation of Delhi by Lord Lake.
1803-05 : Second Anglo-Maratha War.
1807-13 : Lord Minto as Governor-General.
1809 : Treaty of Amritsar-Ranjit Singh and British sign treaty of perpetual amity.
1813-23 : Lord Hastings as Governor-General.
1814-16 : Anglo-Gurkha War.
1817-18 : Pindari War – Peshwa defeated at Kirkee.
1818-19 : Last Anglo-Maratha War.
1823-28 : Lord Amherst Governor-General.
1824-26 : First Burmese War.
1828-35 : Lord William Bentinck as GovernorGeneral.
1829 : Prohibition of Sati.
1829-37 : Suppression of Thuggee.
1833 : Renewal of Company’s charter. Abolition of the Company’s trading rights.
1835-36 : Sir Charles Metcalf Governor-General.
1835 : Macaulay’s Education Resolution. English made official language instead of Persian.
1835 : Foundation of Calcutta Medical College.
1836-1842: Lord Auckland as Governor-General.
1839 : Death of Ranjit Singh.
1842-44 : Lord Ellenborough as Governor-General.
1844-48 : Lord Hardinge as Governor-General.
1845-46 : First Anglo-Sikh War. Treaty of Lahore.
1848-49 : Second Anglo-Sikh War. Defeat of Sikhs and annexation of the Punjab. : Opening of a Hindu Girls’ School in Calcutta by Bethune. 1848-56 : Lord Dalhousie as Governor-General.
1852 : Second Anglo-Burmese War.
1853 : Railway opened from Bombay to Thana. Telegraph line from Calcutta to Agra.
1854 : Charles Wood’s despatch on Education.
1855 : Santhal insurrection in Bihar.
1856 : Annexation of Awadh. Indian University Act. Hindu Widow’s Remarriage Act.
1856-58 : Lord Canning – Governor-General.
1857-58 : Revolt of 1857. Revolt at Meerut begins on May 10, 1857.
1858 : British India placed under the direct government of the Crown. Queen Victoria’s Proclamation.
1858-62 : Lord Canning as Viceroy.
1861 : Indian Councils Act. : Archaeological Survey of India set up. : Indian Civil Service Act. : Introduction of the Penal code.
1862-63 : Lord Elgin as Viceroy.
1864-69 : Sir John Lawrence Viceroy.
1865 : Telegraphic communication with Europe opened.
1869-72 : Lord Mayo as Viceroy.
1875 : Visit of the Prince of Wales. : Arya Samaj founded by Swami Dayananda.
1877 : Lord Lytton held Durbar at Delhi where Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India.
1878 : Vernacular Press Act. 1879 : Theosophical Society at Adayar, (was set up) Madras.
1880-84 : Lord Ripon as Viceroy.
1881 : Factory Act.
1883 : Indian National Conference held in Calcutta.
1883-84 : Ilbert Bill controversy.
1884-88 : Lord Dufferin Viceroy.
1885 : First session of the Indian National Congress held at Bombay.
1887 : Queen Victoria's Jubilee. 1888-93 : Lord Landsdowne Viceroy.
1892 : Indian Councils Act.
1894-99 : Lord Elgin II Viceroy.
1896 : Ramakrishna Mission founded.
1899-1905: Lord Curzon Viceroy.
1905 : Partition of Bengal.
1905-10 : Lord Minto II Viceroy.
1906 : Muslim League formed at Dacca.
1907 : Surat Congress, moderates-extremists clash.
1908 : Newspapers Act. Tilak convicted of sedition.
1909 : Morley-Minto Reforms. : Indian Councils Act passed.
1910-16 : Lord Hardinge II Viceroy.
1911 : Delhi Durbar. : Partition of Bengal annulled. Census of India. : Transfer of Capital to Delhi announced
1914 : Gandhi arrives in India.
1916 : Lucknow Pact of Indian National Congress and All-India Muslim League. : Foundation of Women’s University at Poona. : The Home Rule League founded.
1916-21 : Lord Chelmsford as Viceroy.
1919 : Montague-Chelmsford Reforms. : Rowlatt Act passed. : Massacre at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar (April 13).
1920 : Khilafat Movement and Non Co-operation Movement.
1921 : Moplah Rebellion and Wagon Tragedy.
1921-26 : Lord Reading Viceroy.
1921 : Harappa excavations begin. 1922 : Mohenjodaro excavations begin. : Chauri Chaura incident. 1923 : Swarajists in Indian Councils.
1926-31 : Lord Irwin Viceroy
1927 : Appointment of Simon Commission.
1928 : Simon Commission comes to India. : Death of Lala Lajpat Rai following police assault. Nehru Report.
1929 : Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt drops bombs in the Legislative Assembly. : Congress on December 31 at Lahore declaring its objective of Poora Swaraj for India.
1930 : Gandhiji’s Dandi March. Civil Disobedience Movement.
1930-31 : First Round Table Conference.
1931 : Gandhi-Irwin Pact signed. : Second Round Table Conference.
1931-36 : Lord Wellingdon Viceroy.
1932 : Third Round Table Conference. : Communal Award announced. : Poona Pact signed.
1934 : Civil Disobedience Movement called off.
1935 : Government of India Act, 1935 passed by British Parliament.
1936-44 : Lord Linlithgow Viceroy.
1937 : Inauguration of Provincial Autonomy. Congress Ministries formed in seven out of eleven provinces.
1938 : Haripura session of the Congress.
1939 : Second World War begins (September).
1940 : Pakistan resolution passed by Muslim League at Lahore.
1941 : Subhash Chandra Bose escapes from India.
1942 : Cripps comes to India with his proposals in March. : Congress rejects Cripps Proposal (11 April). : “Quit India” resolution passed by Congress on August 8.
1944-47 : Lord Wavell Viceroy.
1944 : INA reaches Indian soil.
1945 : Labour Government in Britain. INA surrenders to the British (May). First trial of INA men (November 5).
1946 : Cabinet Mission’s plans announced (June 16).
1947-48 : Lord Mountbatten Viceroy
1947 : Announcement of Lord Mountbatten’s plan for Partition of India (June 3). : Indian Independence Act passed (July). : Creation of free India and Pakistan on midnight of August 14/15, 1947 as dominions.
1947-64 : Jawaharlal Nehru Prime Minister of India.
1948 : Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi (January 30). : Raja-gopalachari appointed first Indian Governor-General (June 21).
1949 : New Constitution of India adopted and signed (November 26).
1950 : India become a Republic. New Constitution comes into force (January 26). : Dr. Rajendra Prasad, first President of Indian Republic. : Planning Commission was set up 1951 : Inauguration of First Five Year Plan.
1952 : First General Election in India : National Development Council (NDC) set up. : Family Planning is launched.
1953 : Conquest of Mount Everest. : University Grants Commission (UGC) is set up : CBI is set up : Formation of Andhra Pradesh on linquiestic basis
1954 : Chou En-lai, the Chinese Premier visits India. : Panchashila signed between China and India.
1955 : Hindu Marriage Act and Indian Citizenship Act.
1956 : Reorganisation of Indian States on linguistic basis : 2nd Five Year Plan launched. : Nationalisation of insurance companies.
1957 : Second General election. Introduction of decimal system of coinage. : National Calender based on Saka era adopted.
1959 : Dalai Lama reaches India for political asylum, Indo-Chinese relations worsen. : Panchayat Raj introduced in Rajasthan.
1961 : Goa, Daman and Diu liberated from Portu- guese possession. : Arjuna Award introduced 1962 : Indo-China War. 1964 : Death of Jawaharlal Nehru : Lal Bahadur Shastri becomes Prime Minister.
1965 : Indo-Pak War.
1966 : Tashkent Declaration : Death of Lal Bahadur Shastri : Indira Gandhi becomes Prime Minister.
1969 : First Nationalisation of 14 Banks. : First Dada Sahib Phalke Award was given to Davika Rani 1971 : Indo-Pak War : Birth of Bangladesh.
1972 : Shimla Agreement between India and Pakistan.
1973 : Project Tiger 1974 : Underground nuclear explosion carried out at Pokhran (May 18).
1975 : Emergency declared in the country. : Aryabhatta goes to orbit.